The Committees to Support Resistance – for Communism (CARC) and the Italian communist movement

on .

Italy is one of the main imperialist countries, although it never had a primary role, except during the Twenties and Thirties, when Italian bourgeoisie created the first fascist regimen in history, an historic example for bourgeoisie all over the world.

The creation of fascism was the bourgeoisie´s answer to the great development of working class´ struggle during the 1920/1921, a struggle that had the seizure of power as item on the agenda, following October Revolution’s wave.

During those years, working class occupied factories, peasants occupied lands and a revolutionary movement shaked all the country. Divisions inside the Socialist Party and the absence of a real bolshevik communist party prevented the seizure of power. Nevertheless, this struggle was very important for the birth of the first Italian Communist Party, founded in January 1921. Afterwards, the bourgeoisie established Fascism (1922), a terroristic regimen that imprisoned thousands of Communist Party’s leaders, first of all Antonio Gramsci, the Party Secretary, dead in a fascist jail in the Thirties.

The Communist Party, compelled to clandestinity, organized the resistance during twenty years. That resistance contributed to undermine the fascist regimen, and led the popular masses’ armed resistance (1943-1945), which released Italy from Nazi-fascism.

At the end of Liberation War, when the bourgeoisie and its institutions where in a deep political crisis, the Communist Party carried out politics of agreement with bourgeoisie parties for a national unity government. This way, it gave a wrong outlook about common front politics, and did not avail itself of that determined revolutionary situation in order to make Italy a socialist country. Once again, the working class missed its goal because of  Communist Party’s wrong line.

Since then until today, Italian imperialist bourgeoisie has set a regimen founded on four pillars: 1) the imperialist employers, 2) the U. S. imperialist bourgeoisie, 3) the Vatican Church (Vatican is one of the most powerful imperialist groups all over the world, because of its economical, political and social relations), 4) the Mafia. This regimen has governed our country until today. During this period, the condition has been determined by bloody interior struggles within the bourgeoisie, Mafia´s wars, continuous government crisis, and also by a fierce attack against working class, including slaughters, several killings of striking workers, struggling peasants and young demonstrators (since the slaughter at May Day in 1948 at Portella delle Ginestre in Sicily, until the killing in Genoa of Carlo Giuliani during the demonstrations against G8 in 2001). The condition has been also determined by the presence of the greatest Communist Party in imperialist countries. It counted 4.000.000 members and achieved over 10.000.000 votes at 1975 elections (33 %).

Italian Communist Party (PCI) has been one of the most representative of modern revisionism. Togliatti was the promoter of pacific way to socialism. He stated that revolution was no more necessary and socialism can be get by parliamentary way.

For some decades after the Second World War, working class’ struggles led by PCI achieved great economic, political and social conquers. Those conquers were the material fundament of so called “human faced capitalism”. This “human faced capitalism” lasted twenty years, since about the Fifties until the last Seventies. During this period, revolutionary Communists carried out a hard struggle against revisionism, joined also by partisans of the Resistance against Nazi-fascism.

The task of this struggle was the reconstruction of the revolutionary communist party. Two main movements pursued this aim. The first one was the marxist-leninist movement, the second one was the fighting communist movement (the Red Brigades). Dogmatic deviations marked out the first, militarist deviations marked out the second one.

They both didn´t reach their aim, in spite of the great revolutionary movement of those years, including hundred of thousand of workers, students and other elements of popular masses. During the seventies, this movement carried out struggles in factories, schools, city departements, in the Army and even in jails. The bourgeoisie was compelled to a fierce repression, and imprisoned over 5.000 people.

At the beginning of the Eighties, both those lines (the dogmatic one and the militarist, the adventurist one) led to a hard defeat of the revolutionary movement. This defeat gave precious learnings to the revolutionaries, about limits and mistakes which is necessary to overcome for the rebirth of the revolutionary movement and the reconstruction of a real communist party.

At the beginning of the Nineties, the course begin to create step by step the conditions for the establishment of a new and real communist party, founded on Marxism - Leninism - Maoism. A rich debate spreads about  role and nature of the party and the necessary conditions for its reconstruction among the organizations called communists or to communism referred. During this course the Committees to Support Resistance – for Communism (CARC) were born.

The CARC indicated four necessary conditions for party’s reconstruction:

1. to form comrades able to rebuild a party endowed with competency to perform its task in view of capitalism´s second general crisis development and the subsequent revolutionary situation,

2. to develop the work concerning the Party´s program, working method, analysis of the phase and general line,

3. to involve vanguard workers, popular masses, women and young people with the work for the Party reconstruction,

4. to create the economic fund for the future Party.

In 1998, in order to develop these conditions the National Secretariat of CARC published the New Italian Communist Party´s Project of Manifesto-Program. In 1999 a clandestine group of comrades, including Giuseppe Maj, ex-National Secretary of CARC, constituted the Preparatory Commission of Foundation Congress of the (new) Italian Communist Party (CP). This group launched the program of constitution of the new clandestine communist party, founded on M – L – M, able to carry out the Protracted Revolutionary Popular War. The CP begun the publication of the review The Voice of the (new) Italian Communist Party, and started the construction of party committees (the review is available in (n)PCI’s website: The CARC declared that CP’s foundation was a step forward and kept on with the work on the four conditions.

The preventive counter-revolution has repeatedly waged repressive campaigns against Communists and particularly against CARC´s and CP´s members, imprisoning two comrades in Paris, Giuseppe Maj and Giuseppe Czeppel. The Communists faced repression, denounced the bourgeoisie persecutions, carried out a vast propaganda and agitation against the repressive investigations. This way, they were able to disclose the work currently carried out for the reconstruction of the (new) Communist Party to many people. Their resistance strengthened the reconstruction of the Party.

On 3th October 2004, the Preparatory Commission of foundation congress of (new) Italian Communist Party (CP) declared the constitution of the (new)Italian Communist Party ((n)PCI). The CP stated that “the size of party allowed by objective and subjective conditions is existing”, that “the party existence is not a formal but a concrete and practical fact”, declared closed “the first phase of party construction syntesized in the “two point plan”and opened a new phase, that one of consolidation and strengthening of (n)PCI” (see at the Declaration of foundation of (n)PCI).

The CARC greeted with joy the birth of (n)PCI: the reconstruction of the working class’party was the aim which led their work for 12 years until that time. The best working class’ forces of our country fought for this aim since when, about 40 years ago, the modern revisionists take possession of the old PCI and began party’s corrosion and disgregation.

The CARC wished a complete success to the will expressed by (n)PCI: “to complete the work interrupted by first P.C.I., that is to make Italy a socialist country and so to contribute to the world proletarian revolution”.

The National Direction of CARC realized that the process of communist party’s construction in Italy followed a road partly different from the one they expected in 1994-95 (the work on the four conditions necessary for the purpose). Those conditions determined an important advancing towards the reconstruction of party and reached a certain development in quantity and quality, but they didn’t carry out the foundation of the party itself. Instead of it, the foundation of the party came owing to the process begun by CP in 1999. Striking the balance of the Communist movement’s experience, the CP drew the conclusion that party must be clandestine and that the protracted revolutionary popular war was the way for socialist revolution in our country. Accordingly to this, the CP began to work with her’s own plan at the foundation of the party (a two points plan: 1) constitution of clandestine Party Committees and 2) definition of the Party’s Program - Manifesto).

The birth of (n)PCI necessarily required that CARC had to decide what to do from then onwards, and how they could contribute to the strenghtening of revolutionary fight against imperialist bourgeoisie in that new condition. They realized that CP’s statements about the clandestine characteristic of the party (widely exposed in the magazine La Voce) were interesting and founded. Nevertheless, the CARC were firmly persuaded that a legal political organization of the Communists was important for the development of class struggle in Italy. This organization  could use what was left of social and political freedom conquered by our Resistance, in order to promote the communist orientation of popular masses, their aggregation around the communist party, their mobilization and their sharing in political revolutionary activity and fight for making Italy a new socialist country.

The CARC intended to turn to account the stored up experience and all established connections, undertaking new tasks and forming a new political and organizational structure. The organization with its character would assume specific tasks within the communist party’s general line: “To strictly unite without reserves with the resistance opposed by popular masses to the advancing of capitalism general crisis, to understand and apply the laws of development of this resistance, to support, to promote, to organize it and so to make prevailing in it the working class’ leadership for transforming it in fight for socialism, adopting mass line as the main method of work and direction”. The organization with its character would assume specific tasks within the general strategy defined by (n)PCI in his “general Plan of work”, determined on four struggle fronts. These are the fronts of: 1. the party’s resistance against repression, in order to carry on its work in spite of bourgeoisie’s efforts to destroy it, 2. the popular masses’ mobilization to intervene in the bourgeois political struggle, with the main goal to accumulate revolutionary forces, 3. the popular masses’ mobilization in claiming struggles, with the guide principle to make every struggle a school of communism, 4. the popular masses mobilization to create instruments and organizations free from bourgeoisie, with the guide principle to make every initiative a school of communism.

The CARC carefully considered the field defined by comrades of (n)PCI as the “second struggle front”: The Communists were almost totally absent from this field, in spite of its importance for a great part of the popular masses, interested, mobilized and involved in it. It is the field of political fight in bourgeois society: the electoral campaigns, the parlament activity and the activity of all other elective assemblies, the orientation campaigns of public opinion, the manifestations and strikes called by bourgeois organizations. Particularly the electoral campaigns, the elective and the representative assemblies (instruments of exploiter, repressive and oppressive system of bourgeoisie against popular masses) were totally hold in hand of the bourgeoisie, of open or disguised agents of bourgeois interests, of new and old revisionists, of opportunists, of those who want to act with violence and arrogance against popular masses or of those who want to swindle the masses, those who try to gild the pill of sacrifices, to appease masses in the name of “national unity”.

On 9 and 10 of April 2005 the National Extraordinary Direction (DNS) of the CARC ratified the transformation of CARC in a party actively participating in the bourgeois political struggle, drafted a new Statute and nominated the directing organs of the Party. CARC Party entered the field of bourgeois politics for sweeping away the new revisionism’s influence over our country popular masses and for declaring that the solution for all the problems laying heavy over the popular masses is to make Italy a new socialist country, under direction of the (n)PCI.

New revisionists still have great influence over Italian popular masses. The first reason of this is not the new revisionists’ action nor that of imperialist bourgeoisie. The first reasons are the sectarianism and the dogmatism of the organizations calling themselves communists, the forces who have been opposed to old PCI new revisionists during all these decades. Today with the birth of (n)PCI and with the direct intervention of CARC Party in bourgeois political struggle the trend is being inverted and our slogans and our flags return rising in front of our country popular masses and among them.

We are happy to communicate all this to communists, revolutionaries and popular masses all over the world. We are proud of these results, fruits of a work and of struggles lasted decades. We know their importance because they gather and develop the Communist movement’s experience in Italy, a country which gave a great contribution to the world Communist movement and which occupies a first level position among the imperialist countries.

CARC Party will bear in mind all the world Communist movement teachments and all the experience of Communist parties and organizations ranged in the struggle against imperialism. Our Party will bear in mind the teachments of Maoism, the third higher stage of communist thinking after Marxism and Leninism. Founding ourselves on these teachments, we will front new problems and find new solutions for problems not yet solved by Communist movement, for specific problems which the revolutionary advance in an imperialist country as Italy involves. The practical and theoretic solutions that we shall find will be our contribution to world Communist movement.

A brief account of our party’s present condition

The Committees to Support Resistance- for Communism (CARC) have been established during the National Meeting held in Viareggio on 21-22 November 1992. Since then the CARC have been working as a political organization pursuing the aim of creating the necessary conditions for the rebuilding of a true communist party. The CARC’ s political line has been clearly stated in Chapter I, in the first CARC’s Statute: «The CARC are an organization having the reconstruction of the communist party, first and great stage for the Socialist Revolution in our country, as main strategic objective. The CARC have adopted the revolutionary heritage of the Italian and international communist movement, synthesized by Marxism – Leninism - Maoism. Therefore, during more than a decade, the CARC’s political line has been: “To get organized and organize for the reconstruction of the communist party”».

On 9 and 10 of April 2005 the CARC became a Party operating in the field of the bourgeois politcal struggle and drafted its new Statute.

Today the CARC are still a relatively small party, with divisions in the major and other Italian cities (Milan, Rome, Naples, Turin, Florence, Bergamo, Modena, Massa, Carrara, Viareggio). They regularly publish by some thousands copies a news-sheet, “Resistenza”. They also publish “Rapporti Sociali” a propaganda and debate magazine for communism. They run a publishing house that produced numerous publications including the “Mao Tse-Tung’s Works” in 25 volumes and the first 5 volumes of Stalin’s literary work.

The CARC subscribe to the glorious and victorious tradition of the communist movement  since the “Manifesto of the Communist Party” of 1848 up to the “Paris Comune” of 1871, that was the creator of the first wave of  proletarian revolution, the founder of URSS, socialist countries area and Chinese Popular Republic. It is the communist movement that wiped out old colonial system, globally changed the world giving to popular masses all over the world the means to develop their consciousness and knowledge to a stage never reached before. The CARC recognize the current difficulties and the defeat suffered by the communist movement (due mainly to the modern revisionists predominant role within the old communist parties and former socialist countries).

Nevertheless, the defeat suffered by the communist movement has only superficially jeopardized its historical role, and has not compromised its future destiny.

The CARC work for a revolutionary change of the current society, for a socialist society free from the exploitation of the workers and popular masses. The source of our determination, vigor and resistance comes from the working class and the popular masses from which we get new and everlasting vigor and resources.